Florida Fun Traffic School

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Module 3 - COLLISION PREVENTION

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cars intersection cop crash

Defensive driving skills can help you avoid dangerous situations in advance.

Collision prevention is more than just swerving or slamming on the brakes; although, these maneuvers can prevent a crash. The real goal is to use defensive driving techniques to avoid dangerous situations as early as possible. By taking action in advance, you may not have to swerve, slam on the brakes, or change your pants because of a close call on the road—and that makes driving safer for everyone.

Scanning

Baseball Hall of Fame catcher Yogi Berra once said, “You can observe a lot just by watching.” Yogi makes a good point, because you usually don't see things, like a traffic hazard, until you look for them. In fact, your vision is perhaps your most important tool for safe driving—except for maybe your car keys.

Unfortunately, many people forget the importance of their vision when they get behind the wheel. For example, it's easy to develop bad visual habits such as not checking your blind spots and not looking both ways at a stop sign. Fortunately, you can easily avoid many road hazards if you develop the good habit of constantly scanning the road around you.1

Scanning simply means visually checking your driving environment—constantly! You can use one of several methods to help you do this as you drive. Some of the more effective techniques include the Smith System and SIPDE.

*Fun Fact: You left your horse's lights on

In Kuna, Idaho, it is illegal to ride a horse on any street during darkness unless the rider or the horse is equipped with a light (KMO § 11-1-10). You and your horse can decide who wants to wear the light amongst yourselves.

SIPDE

SIPDE is an acronym for five key actions that are central to safe driving. When used together, these will help you scan the road and respond to hazards. The five "actions" of SIPDE are:

Search (or Scan)—Scan the driving environment for potential hazards.

Identify—Recognize and identify hazards in the driving environment.

Predict —Anticipate how these hazards will affect you.

Decide—Decide how you will act to avoid the hazards.

Execute—Choose a course of action and follow through on it.2

The animation below will take you through each step of the SIPDE technique using a rock slide as an example.

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The Smith System

The Smith System is a set of five “keys” designed to improve your ability to identify and respond to road hazards. The five “keys” are:

Aim high in steering. The higher you look, the farther ahead you see. By looking farther ahead, you can identify hazards and have time to respond to them. You should look as far ahead as possible or about 20-30 seconds down the road. This is about 1-2 blocks in an urban environment at normal, safe speeds, and ⅓ to ½ mile on the highway at speeds of up to 65 mph. If you only focus on the car ahead of you, you will not see upcoming hazards in time to react to them safely.

Get the big picture. Scan the entire driving environment, not just the roadway. This means looking to the shoulders or sides of the road, your blind spots, and behind your vehicle (check behind you every 5-7 seconds). You will be able to make better decisions when you are aware of what is going on all around you. This is especially true when driving on the open highway and through intersections, since danger can come from all sides in these places.

driver pov brake lights

Constantly scanning the driving environment allows you to identify and react to hazards.

Keep your eyes moving. To scan the entire driving environment, you need to keep your eyes moving. In addition, conditions on and off the road are constantly changing. Focusing on only one area, like the car in front of you, means that you will overlook hazards in others. Check your mirrors and turn your head to check on your blind spots before proceeding with any maneuver.

Leave yourself an out. Make sure you have an escape route in case of an emergency by maintaining a space cushion around your vehicle. You should leave a safe distance between your vehicle and the vehicle in front of you and avoid driving next to another car. Keeping the lane next to you clear will allow you to move there if the car ahead of you stops suddenly. If you are boxed in, you will not be able to avoid roads hazards.

Make sure others see you. Communicating with other roads users is extremely important. For example, signaling your intention to change lanes in advance will allow other drivers time to respond accordingly. Collisions often occur because one of the drivers failed to see the other vehicle or was unsure of a driver's intentions. Always use your turn signals and activate your headlights when it is dark.2

*Fun Fact: That's not your cabbage!

No matter how hungry you get in Preston, Idaho, you'll want to think twice before having a bite of someone else's cabbage. In fact, "It is unlawful for any person to wrongfully harvest or otherwise take the beans, cabbage, corn, peas or other crops of another within the city limits of the city" (PMC § 9-54-010). Stealing your daily serving of veggies will cost you $300 bucks or six months in the county jail; or both.

Video: Using Your Eyes Effectively When Driving

Safe drivers know how to use their eyes while driving. They rely not just on their central vision when scanning the driving environment; they use their peripheral (side) vision as well. The following video demonstrates some of the techniques that you have just read about.

Video: "Using Your Eyes Effectively"


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Commentary Driving

Commentary driving requires you to give an out loud play-by-play account of what's going on in the environment, including what actions you are taking. This technique is useful for inexperienced drivers who are practicing because it helps them to stay focused and anticipate the actions of others.3 You may also find commentary driving helpful; however, you don't need to talk out loud—unless you enjoy talking to yourself. Instead, you can simply have a commentary going on in your head as you drive, which may help you stay focused.

Determining an Escape Route

suv space van

Leaving adequate space around your vehicle gives you an out in an emergency.

As you scan the road, watch for any hazards or indications of them such as brake lights, cars slowing down, lane blockages, and vehicles going significantly faster or slower. Many of these may occur at the same time, so you'll need to be able to predict what may happen and determine an escape route. If you spot potential hazards, adjust your speed and lane position to avoid them. Plan possible escape routes by identifying gaps in traffic where you can safely maneuver your vehicle. Avoid traveling in packs, following too closely, and driving parallel to another vehicle. These actions can limit your options in an emergency.

Minimizing your risks often means making compromises. For example, if you are being tailgated, you may need to move over and allow the other driver to pass—even when they are acting unsafely or driving like an @!#$@%@%&*. If an approaching vehicle drifts into your lane of travel, you'll need to slow down and pull over to the right, and then sound your horn and flash your lights as a warning. When approaching a curve, slow down before entering, stay toward the right side of the lane, and be prepared for anything.1, 2, 3

*Fun Fact: Fast Food

Mopeds and snacks don't mix in North Port. In fact, "It shall be unlawful for any person to eat or drink while the bicycle, motorcycle or moped is moving" (NPMC § 74-5(b)). If you get hungry while cruising your scooter or 10 speed, you better make a pit stop instead of eating your peanut butter and jelly in traffic.

Mirrors and Blind Spots

mirror rear view road

Always check your blind spots before making a lane change.

Everyone has blind spots; in their cars anyway. These are located to the rear at the sides of your vehicle, as shown in the diagram. Regardless of the size of other vehicles, you can completely overlook them if they are traveling in your blind spots. This is especially true of motorcycles, mopeds, and scooters.

When driving, you should check your mirrors every 5-8 seconds. However, keep in mind that you cannot see your blind spots by looking in your mirrors alone, so you need to turn your head over your shoulder for lane changes and turns. Periodically checking your mirrors and glancing over your shoulder as you scan the road should keep you aware of what's going on around you.4 In addition, you should avoid lingering in another driver's blind spot—it's unsafe and just plain bad manners.

Your mirrors need to be positioned correctly if you want them to be effective. They must be adjusted to give you a good view from your normal position in the driver’s seat. However, there should be some overlap to account for any obstacles in your field of vision. For example, taller passengers seated in the rear will block some of your view, as will rear seat head restraints in some vehicles. Larger vehicles have larger blind spots to the rear, making the positioning of your outside mirrors that much more critical. Again, your mirrors can never account for all of your blind spots, so look over your shoulder when you change lanes, turn, or back up.5

Backing Up Safely

kid car danger

Whenever you backup, ensure that the path behind your vehicle is totally clear.

Unless you have x-ray vision—or a car equipped with a backup camera or sensors—blind spots can be a problem when you are backing up. For example, there may be debris to the rear of your vehicle, an approaching car, a hibernating bear, or young children nearby that you cannot see in your mirrors.6  To avoid these hazards, you need to be extra cautious when backing, especially around children.

According to KIDS AND CARS, there were 561 reported incidents of children being backed over between 1994 and 2004, with most of them under the age of 4. Of these incidents, 392 resulted in a death, more than 60% involved larger vehicles (i.e. truck, SUV or van), and over 70% were caused by a parent or close relative of the child.7 KIDS AND CARS also reported that if your vehicle is longer or taller than average, such as a truck, SUV or van, you have an even bigger blind spot than that of a typical passenger car.

For example, researchers found that a driver of average height (5 feet 8 inches) driving a 2003 Honda Accord EX had a blind spot to the back measuring 13 feet, while a shorter driver (5 feet 1 inch) driving the same car would not be able to see for 23 feet. With the 2003 Dodge Grand Caravan EX (a minivan), the average-height driver had a blind spot measuring 14 feet, while it was 23 feet for the shorter driver. However, an average-height driver in a 2004 Ford F-150 XLT (pickup truck) had a blind spot of 34 feet, which translated to 45 feet for the shorter driver.

At the end of the day, backing up is a dangerous maneuver no matter how large or small of a vehicle you drive. Always check behind your vehicle before getting in and while you back up. If there are children nearby, make sure you can see them as you back up. You may be better off having someone help while you do the maneuver, especially if you have a large vehicle.8

Florida law says that you may not back up unless you can do so safely and without interfering with traffic. You are also not permitted to back up on a shoulder or anywhere on a limited access roadway such as a freeway.9 Backing up is a maneuver that must be done with care to avoid property damage, a collision, or worse. Keep the speed of your vehicle low and look behind you as you back up.6

*Fun Fact: Fishing without a license

If you plan of finishing in Ocala, you better not have a license, or you better be retired. In fact, "It shall be unlawful for any person over the age of 16 and under the age of 60 to fish in any municipally owned ponds or bodies of water located within the city limits" (CMC § 42-7). Looks like it's fish sticks for everyone else.

Following Distance

traffic freeway

Maintaining a space cushion around your vehicle gives you time to react to road hazards.

Maintaining the proper following distance creates a space cushion around your vehicle. This cushion gives you time to react to hazards on the road.  You will need to adjust your following distance to match your speed, road conditions, and the actions of other drivers.  For example, at higher speeds you need a greater following distance. In order to determine your following distance and create a space cushion around your vehicle, you can use the two-second rule.

The two-second rule is the minimum recommended following distance. To establish a two-second gap between you and the vehicle ahead, select a fixed point on the road, such as a sign or tree. Wait for the vehicle ahead of you to pass that point, and then start counting “one-thousand-one, one-thousand-two.” If you pass the fixed point before you finish your count, you are following too closely, so ease off the gas slightly.

In some circumstances a two-second gap is not enough, and you will need to increase your following distance. When that is the case, increase your following distance to at least three seconds, or better yet, four seconds.10,11 You should increase your following distance between your car and the vehicle ahead when:

You are being tailgated. Establishing a larger cushion gives you more time to react and brake, thus allowing you to avoid a collision with the vehicle behind you.

Your vision of the road is obstructed, or visibility is poor. Increasing the following distance allows you to account for any surprises.

You are behind a large vehicle. When you can only see the vehicle’s back in front of you, and not the road, you are too close. To see the road ahead, you need to make room by staying back a bit further.

Driving on slippery roads. It's more difficult to stop due to the reduced traction. You may have to increase the following distance to as much as 10 seconds when driving on icy roads.

Following motorcycles. You'll have to avoid hitting the rider, especially if the motorcycle falls.

The driver behind you wants to pass. Give him or her space to move into the lane.

You are behind a vehicle that makes frequent stops. Such as, a municipal bus, school bus, or other vehicle that makes regular stops to unload passengers or is required by law to stop as al railroad crossings.

Road or weather conditions are poor. You'll need time to react should something unexpected occurs.

Traveling at high speeds. The faster you go, the longer it will take for you to stop.

Pulling a trailer or carrying a heavy load. The extra weight makes it more difficult to stop.

Merging onto a freeway. You need to give yourself and the car you pull in front of a space cushion.

Video: Managing Space and Time for Safe Driving

Good drivers are good at managing space and time. This means they constantly make adjustments to vehicle speed, lane position, and the stereo—just joking. The following video demonstrates some of the space management techniques that you have just read about.

Video: "Managing Space and Time for Safe Driving"


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*Fun Fact: Sleep express

If you're in Orlando and you feel like taking a nap, please don't catch your Z's on the railroad tracks. In fact, "It shall be unlawful for any person to sleep on, or within ten (10) feet of, any railroad track" (OMC § 43.53). While sleeping on the tracks will help you make your train on time, it probably isn't very good for your back.

How to Avoid a Rear-End Collision

collision cars rear roadway

You can prevent rear-end collisions by following a few simple steps, or just stop driving altogether.

As you read earlier, rear-end collisions are generally the result of dangerous driving behavior, such as speeding, tailgating, braking too late or overall driver negligence. This type of collision commonly occurs at intersections and in congested traffic. In order to avoid rear-end collisions, you can take the following steps:

  • Increase following distance from vehicles in front of you, or leave space ahead of you when stopping at an intersection.
  • Signal to let other drivers know when you plan to make a turn, stop, or change lanes.
  • Brake smoothly by applying gradual pressure. Don’t ride or tap your brakes, as that will only confuse or irritate the driver behind you.
  • Keep pace with traffic whenever possible, but do not exceed the speed limit.
  • Allow tailgaters to pass you by slowing down slightly and changing lanes if needed.
  • Check your mirrors and blind spots for vehicles behind and around you. Be aware of the how close nearby vehicles are to you.
  • Before changing lanes, check to be sure the one you are moving into is clear, and maintain your speed so that vehicles approaching from behind won't have to brake to avoid hitting you.
  • After you stop, keep your foot pressed on the brake pedal to let others know you have stopped. Make sure to keep your brake lights clean and in working order.12, 13

Stopping Distance

road lines stop

Speed, the driving environment, and vehicle condition all affect how quickly you can stop.

It takes time to recognize a hazard and apply the brakes. There are also factors that affect your ability to stop, such as speed and road conditions. For example, it takes longer to stop a vehicle traveling at high speeds, or when the road surface is wet or icy. Worn tires and brakes also affect stopping distances. Regardless of the conditions or the speed at which you travel, there are always three factors that influence your total stopping distance: perception, reaction time, and braking.

*Fun Fact: Please don't operate that mule on the sidewalk

If you plan to ride your mule in Rivera Beach, you'll have to park him curbside. In fact, "No person shall ride, walk or otherwise operate any horse, pony or mule upon any street, sidewalk or right-of-way within the city…" (RBMC § 4-2). You heard right, you can't operate your mule in Rivera Beach, at least not on the sidewalk.

Perception Time

Your perception time is a measurement of how long it takes for you to see and recognize a hazard. Under ideal conditions, it takes the average driver about ¾ of a second to perceive danger. Now, suppose you are traveling at 40 mph (about 60 feet per second). By the time you identify a hazard, you will have already traveled about 45 feet closer to it. The distance that you cover before you recognize danger is called your perception distance. Your vision and level of alertness can also affect your perception time and distance.

Reaction Time

Your reaction time is a measurement of how long it takes for you to act after perceiving a hazard. For example, it takes the average driver about ½ to ¾ of a second to take their foot off the gas and apply the brake. Now, suppose you are traveling at 40 mph. By the time you begin to apply the brake, you will have traveled 30 to 45 feet closer to the hazard. The distance you travel as you react to the potential danger is your reaction distance.

Braking Distance

foot brake pedal

Braking distance is affected by the condition of your brakes, tires, and the weight of your vehicle.

Your braking distance is a measurement of the distance your vehicle travels before it comes to a complete stop. This is affected by the condition of your brakes, your tires, the weight of your vehicle, and road conditions. The time and distance that it takes for a vehicle's brakes to bring it to a complete stop are also dependent on these factors. At 40 mph, it may take about 72 feet for your vehicle to come to a stop after you apply the brakes. When you double your speed, the braking distance is typically about four times longer. However, this is not your total stopping distance.

Stopping Distance

Your vehicle's total stopping distance is the sum of the three distances noted above: perception distance, reaction distance, and braking distance. For example, if you were traveling at 40 mph and the total of your perception and reaction times was 1.5 seconds, you would have traveled about 160 feet before coming to a stop.14

The average driver in a passenger car traveling at 20 mph in ideal conditions will need approximately 44 feet to perceive and react to a hazard, then 18 feet to apply the brakes, for a total stopping distance of 62 feet. However, the time and distance increase at higher speeds. At 60 mph, it will take about 132 feet to perceive and react, then 161 feet to apply the brakes, for a total of 293 feet—that's almost the length of a football field!
The chart below shows the approximate total distance it will take to stop from various speeds under ideal conditions:


Speed
(in mph)

Perception +
Reaction Distance
(in feet)

Estimated
Braking Distance
(in feet)

Total Stopping Distance
(in feet)

20 mph

44 feet

18 feet

62 feet

30 mph

66 feet

40 feet

106 feet

40 mph

88 feet

72 feet

160 feet

50 mph

110 feet

112 feet

222 feet

60 mph

132 feet

161 feet

293 feet

70 mph

154 feet

220 feet

374 feet

Put Your Knowledge to the Test

As a driver, you must constantly perceive road hazards and take the appropriate actions. Put yourself behind the wheel in the following animated scenario and test your skills. Remember, you must decide if and when to take action.

Time & Braking Distance

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Covering the Brake

As you read earlier, road conditions can increase your stopping distance. You can compensate for this is by covering the brake. In some situations, covering the brake will reduce your reaction time by as much as ¾ of a second.

When you cover the brake, you simply remove your foot from the accelerator and hold it over the brake pedal (don't actually applying the brakes). Covering the brake is recommended when driving through intersections or other hazardous areas; however, you should not continually cover the brake as you drive.17 It's a good idea to cover the brake in the following situations:

  • Driving next to parked cars
  • Approaching intersections
  • Approaching traffic signals
  • Driving in a school or construction zone
  • Vehicles ahead are slowing or braking

*Fun Fact: Parking and parkways

Next time you find yourself in Victorville, California, please remember that there is no parking on the parkway. In fact, "No person shall stop, stand or park a vehicle within any parkway" (VCO § 12.28.015). For the record, a parkway is generally defined a scenic route that has nice landscaping. It's still kind of funny though—okay, maybe not. Sorry.

Adjusting Your Speed

speedometer needle 160

If your speedometer ever looks like this, you may be dreaming or in serious trouble.

As you scan the road for changes in traffic conditions, you will often need to adjust your speed accordingly. Prepare to slow down or stop when you approach the following areas, as drivers ahead of you may see signs of trouble and react before you can:

  • Traffic-controlled intersections
  • Crosswalks
  • Lanes next to parked cars
  • Parking lot entrances
  • Interchanges where vehicles enter and leave
  • Slippery or ice-covered roads
  • Where children are present, such as schools, playgrounds or parks
  • Construction zones

School Zones

You are required to slow down when nearing a posted school zone where children are present. This means 30 minutes before, during, and 30 minutes after children begin arriving at school (for breakfast or for the start of the school session) and leaving at the end of the school session for the day. At these times, the greatest number of children can be found outside school grounds, but you still should slow down if you see them at other times of the day.18

Construction Zones

road construction zone

It's not smart to upset someone driving a bulldozer; always yield the right-of-way to maintenance workers.

When approaching a construction or road maintenance zone, you are required to yield the right-of-way to workers that are present in the area.19 Florida was second only to Texas in the number of deaths in these areas in 2009, with 85 people killed.20 It is important to understand that these workers are trying to improve the roads and hopefully your drive in the future.

There a few things worse that being stuck in traffic, but you can do yourself a favor and even lower your blood pressure by being patient in work zones. Pay attention to the orange signs that warn you of these areas ahead of time. These signs alert you to potential danger, and they may also give you enough warning to find a shortcut or another route around traffic.

Whenever you drive through construction or road maintenance zones, try to keep the following in mind:

  • Expect the unexpected. Traffic lanes may have been changed to accommodate the work being done.
  • Slow down. Speeding is a major cause of work zone crashes. Keep in mind that speeding fines are doubled.
  • Don’t tailgate.
  • Maintain a safe distance between your vehicle and the workers and their equipment.
  • Obey flaggers. They wear orange vests or jackets and use red flags or slow/stop signs to direct traffic.
  • Stay alert. Remove distractions that keep your full attention from the roadway. This means putting away your cell phone, leaving your radio alone, etc.
  • Keep up with the flow of traffic. If you need to merge, do it as soon as you can, not at the last minute.
  • Give yourself plenty of time, leaving early if possible. Expect delays. If you check for traffic before you leave, you will be better prepared.21

Recap

exerior rear view mirror

In this module, you read about visually scanning the driving environment for hazards and reviewed the Smith System and SIPDE. You also covered the importance of identifying escape routes, checking your blind spots, and maintaining adequate following distances. Remember, a proper following distance creates a safety cushion around your vehicle and can give you more time to react to a hazard.

Finally, you learned about perception time, reaction times, braking time, and stopping distances. However, the most important thing that you should remember from this module is that you can't operate your mule on the sidewalk in Rivera Beach. Seriously, if you only remember one thing from this course it should be that—just kidding.


1 Lanier, J. "The Eyes Have It: Visionary Tactics for Smooth, Quick Driving" Inside Line, Edmunds, available at: www.edmunds.com/insideline/do/Features/articleId=104950
2 American Automobile Association, Responsible Driving Chapter 1, Lessons 3, 4. Available at: www.driveraide.com/Pubs/class%20book/Chapter1.htm
3 Institute of Advanced Motorists, "Commentate to Concentrate," available at: www.irishadvancedmotorists.ie/pressdocs/SafetyTips/Safety_Tips_05-04_Commentate_to_concentrate.pdf
4 Schaller, R. "Defensive Driving Rule #17: Know Your Blind Spots!"RoadTripAmerica.com, available at: www.roadtripamerica.com/DefensiveDriving/Rule17.htm
5 Wren, E. "Setting Outside Mirrors to the Correct Angle," Drive and Stay Alive, Inc. 2003, available at: www.driveandstayalive.com/articles%20and%20topics/driving-myths-and-mistakes/setting-the-mirrors.htm
6 Schaller, R. "Defensive Driving Rule #19: Avoid Backing Up!"RoadTripAmerica.com, available at: www.roadtripamerica.com/DefensiveDriving/Rule19.htm
7 Kidsandcars.org, "Back Over Fact Sheet," available at: www.kidsandcars.org/incidents/backover/backoverinformation.html
8 Consumer Reports, "The problem of blind spots," October 2005, available at: www.consumerreports.org/cro/cars/safety-recalls/mind-that-blind-spot-1005/overview.htm
9 Florida Statute 316.1985
10 Schaller, R. "Defensive Driving Rule #13: Create Space and Use the Two-Seconds-Plus Rule,"RoadTripAmerica.com, available at: www.roadtripamerica.com/DefensiveDriving/Rule13.htm
11 Schaller, R. "Defensive Driving Rule #12: Look Down the Road,"RoadTripAmerica.com, available at: www.roadtripamerica.com/DefensiveDriving/Rule12.htm
12 Schaller, R. "Defensive Driving Rule #51: Make Defensive Stops!"RoadTripAmerica.com, available at: www.roadtripamerica.com/DefensiveDriving/Rule51.htm
13 Schaller, R. "Defensive Driving Rule #27: Get Rid of Tailgaters,"RoadTripAmerica.com, available at: www.roadtripamerica.com/DefensiveDriving/Rule27.htm
14 Memmer, S. and Helperin, J. "Keeping Your (Braking) Distance: More Than Just Slowing Down,"Edmunds.com, November 23, 2000, available at: www.edmunds.com/ownership/driving/articles/43810/article.html
15 NHTSA Highway Safety Programs: Safe & Sober Campaign, "Driving at Night Can Be Deadly," available at: www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/outreach/safesobr/pub/deadly.pdf
16 NHTSA, Consumer Braking Information, available at: www.nhtsa.dot.gov/cars/testing/brakes/
17 National Safety Council, "Failure to Yield Right-of-Way," available at: www.nsc.org/nsm/rightofway.htm
18 Florida Statute 316.1895
19 Florida Statute 316.079
20 Fatalities in Motor Vehicle Traffic Crashes by State and Construction/Maintenance Zone (2009), National Work Zone Safety Information Clearinghouse, available at: wzsafety.tamu.edu/crash_data/workzone_fatalities/2009
21 National Work Zone Awareness Week 2006 Fact Sheet, Federal Highway Administration, available at: safety.fhwa.dot.gov/wz/nwzaw_events/factsheet06.htm





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